Law is a set of rules enforceable by social institutions and governing the lives of people. It ensures the rights of individuals and protects their property. These rights may be contractual, personal, or civil.
There are four universal principles that govern the rule of law: equality before the law, transparency of process, impartiality, and accountability. They were tested by a variety of experts from around the world and have become the working definition of the rule of law.
The concept of natural law emerged in ancient Greek philosophy and re-emerged in mainstream culture through the writings of Thomas Aquinas. Utilitarian theories remained dominant in law until the 20th century.
Today, there are many legal systems, including American, Chinese, European, and Soviet law. In addition, there are contemporary legal systems that are less formal. For example, Islamic Sharia is based on religious precepts and is explicitly based on the Quran. Other types of religious laws include Jewish Halakha, which is described in the Talmud, and Christian canon law, which survives in some church communities.
Law is a complex topic that has many different branches and aspects. Among the most common topics are immigration, healthcare, and environmental concerns. Legal issues are also triggered by family problems, sudden events, and even planned ones.
Law is a discipline that is generally governed by government. Private actors such as companies and individuals can also write contracts that are legally binding. Similarly, courts have the ability to hear grievances from minority groups. Law is a specialized area of study that requires a certain degree of training. Modern lawyers typically have a Bachelor of Laws or a Juris Doctor. Higher academic degrees, such as a Master of Legal Studies or a Bar Professional Training Course, are also required.
There are three main types of laws: civil law, criminal law, and religious law. All are enforceable by social institutions and governments. Civil law systems have less detailed judicial decisions, and are usually short. Criminal law systems require more judicial decisions. Religious law, like Sharia, is based on religious precepts and can be further interpreted through Qiyas.
Law is the foundation for the political system and social institutions. It shapes history, economics, politics, and society. Articles on law are designed to outline the relationship between law and political structures and ideologies.
The term “law” can refer to a single legal issue, a set of rules, or the entire nation’s laws. Sometimes, however, law is used to refer to the practice of law itself. Generally, a lawyer is a person who is licensed by a state or government to provide legal advice or represent clients.
Although legal issues are often complex, the basics of law are very clear. People must follow the law, but breaking the law can result in jail time, fines, or other penalties.
There are many different areas of law, from tax and corporate law to commercial and immigration. However, there are some general legal issues that most people experience, such as debt and housing problems.